ART. THE COST OF AIDS
Mexico has been hosting the International Conference on AIDS. In the maze of figures that have been widely known that the pandemic continues to progress and in our immediate environment that more people are infected due to lack of strategies to prevent infection.
In this context, the news that stood out the cost of antiretroviral drugs to buy the health sector to address HIV / AIDS patients is four times higher compared to its value in other Latin American countries. The laboratories that produce them say this is because Mexico is listed as a member of the OECD.
What are ARVs?
We are talking about drugs whose name is because its action is directed against the retrovirus.
In general, they belong to the Retroviridae family and are characterized as carrying two copies of RNA to single-replicate. Three genera are known Oncovirus, which are attributed to be caused by tumors and leukemias, and lentivirus Espumavirus.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus.
In cells are DNA and genetic information is carried in the chromosomes to proteins by means of messenger RNA. In retroviruses, the transcription of this process is done backwards from RNA to DNA, using the trascriptasa, a specific enzyme.
An enzyme is a type of protein structure that makes possible the chemical reactions in the metabolism of organisms.
To infect cells, the retrovirus converts its RNA into DNA by inserting itself into the DNA of cells.
Have identified four human retrovirus which is the human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1), the two types (HIV-2) as well as the T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and II ( HTLV-II).
All are favorite T lymphocytes, which are cells of defense for the immune system.
The human immunodeficiency virus produced lysis or rupture of the membrane of infected cells that cause severe immunosuppression.
How HIV is a virus?
This is a structure that contains genetic material, specific enzymes, a deck and an envelope protein.
The viral envelope is the outer layer of the virus, which are proteins known as gp 120, which are small protrusions on the surface of the virus that help it to join the infected cells.
Protein also has a cover (called the capsid) that the genetic code remains protected in its two identical chains of RNA, which is necessary for its replication. HIV also has the following enzymes:
Integrase, which helps to incorporate the genetic material of the virus into the DNA of host cells during viral replication, reverse transcriptase, to convert the HIV genetic material (RNA) viral DNA, which allows you to integrate the genetic material virus in the DNA of host cells, and protease, which cuts the protein chains to prepare for assembly into viral particles.
How HIV infects?
Once inside the body, HIV is the cell’s defense system (immune) that are CD4 + receptors, which allow the virus to join the cell, being the most preferred of the leukocyte (white cell) identified as T cells, It has numerous receptors of this type.
The infection continues to replication, when HIV transfers its genetic content and enzymes inside the cell, which integrates the genetic material of the same (host), leading to a new generation of HIV.
This retrovirus causes a weakened immune system of the human body so unable to defend themselves against parasites, fungi, bacteria and other viruses.
How do ARVs?
It is clarified that none of these drugs to eradicate HIV from the body who has been infected, though their purpose is to mitigate the effects of the virus in the immune system, which-as mentioned before, gives the agency the ability to defend against diseases.
Antiretroviral therapy, as established for cases of HIV, is to give the individual a combination of three or more drugs.
ANTIVIH drugs are also known under the following headings:
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside analogues. ITIN
Reverse transcriptase inhibitor non-nucleoside analogues. ITINN. And also
Some of the drugs often used in treatments for HIV patients are familiar with the common names AZT, zidovudine (A) (B), ddI, didanosine, D4T, stavudine, abacavir, 3TC, lamivudine (A) (B).
Also Efavirenz, Lopinavir / Ritonavir, Indinavir, Nelfinavir, Saquinavir, Efavirenz, Nevirapine;
The retroviral also respond to names such as Retrovir, Epivir, Ziagen, Viramune, Kaletra, Crixivan, Invirase, Norvir.
Regardless of the brand of antiretroviral drugs, in Mexico the annual cost per patient with HIV around sixty thousand pesos. To continue making purchases at higher prices within four years of government resources will be insufficient to meet demand especially if, as expected, new cases continue to appear.